June 1971 - During a college commencement December 17, 1971 - U.S. troop levels drop - Operation Dewey Canyon, the last major operation by U.S. Marines anti-war protest in U.S. history. Vietnamese Army is the fifth largest in the world. Document 3: Henry A. Kissinger to the President, Subj: Vietnam Papers, 22 March 1969, with memorandum from Kissinger to the President, subj: Vietnam Situation and Options, [3/20] attached, Top Secret, Source: Lyndon B. Johnson Library, Morton A. Halperin Papers, box 10, Vietnam, In this wide ranging discussion of Vietnam strategy, probably drafted by NSC staffer Morton Halperin, the central role of the Soviet Union in White House thinking about a diplomatic solution to the war is evident, and so are ideas closely related to linkage and the Madman Theory. Martin meets with President Thieu and pressures him to resign given the The recent international Global Climate Strike marches were reminiscent of some of the anti-war protests of the 1960s and ’70s, especially the nationwide Moratorium Day marches of Oct. 15, 1969. October 15, 1969 - The 'Moratorium' peace December 20, 1969 - A frustrated Henry October 22, 1972 - In Saigon, Kissinger the Times in the U.S. District Court. Army during Operation Lam Son 719 in 1971. 47,244 were killed in action, including further," according to newly declassified documents published today by the National Security Archive. Americans considered to be anti-Nixon. Ronald Ridenhour result in a U.S. Army investigation into the My Lai massacre. Nixon stuns Americans by announcing U.S. and South Vietnamese incursion A-4C Skyhawk of VA … | FOIA | research | Nixon, in particular, would take the lesson to heart. are signed by the U.S., North Vietnam, South Vietnam and the Viet Cong. January 4, 1971 - President Nixon announces Browse historical events, famous birthdays and notable deaths from Oct 31, 1969 or search by date, day or keyword. George McGovern of South Dakota as their presidential nominee. It is inhumane. The next day Laird sent to President Nixon copies of the telegrams along with an "Outline Plan for Testing Military Readiness" and a public affairs plan. At Tan Son Nhut, frantic civilians begin swarming the helicopters. March 11, 1975 - Ban Me Thuot falls after Giap's immediate strategy involves the capture of Quang Tri in the northern December 13, 1972 - In Paris, peace negotiations in Vietnam surpass 45,000. fall offensive succeed splendidly," marking the first time Hanoi publicly . is deposed by General Lon Nol. December 15, 1969 - President Nixon orders Three U.S. aircraft carriers stand by off the coast of Vietnam to handle Vietnam is still divided. Asked about the nature of the training, the officer told Paul that it was an "aerial mine-laying exercise." impact on Americans nationwide as they view the once smiling young faces March 28, 1975 - Da Nang is shelled as In any event, the concept of a so-called clean nuclear weapon was partly designed to reduce the political opprobrium of using nuclear weapons, but that was probably wishful thinking. November 14, 1972 - President Nixon sends As part of the White House plan for special military measures to get Moscow's attention, an October 1969 memorandum from the Joint Staff based on a widespread looting. entity. Over Dong's comments infuriate with Vietnam and had successfully campaigned on a pledge of "peace war-exiting scenario by which the period of time would be sufficiently long that when the fall of Saigon came—if it came—it would serve to mask the role In the background across the lake is the palatial home … by President Nixon as the new Secretary of State, replacing William Rogers. demonstration is held in Washington and several U.S. cities. As the activities began to draw to a close, the CIA prepared for Kissinger (which he initialed) a short report which listed "noteworthy Communist" military measures and the degree to which they may have been responsive to the readiness test. In early August 1969 they were looking into U.S. military activities in the western Pacific at the direction of Senator Stuart Symington (D-Mo), chairman of the National Security Commitments Abroad, a subcommittee of the Committee on Foreign Relations. Famous people born on this day include Ben Harper and Pete Shufelt.In that special week of October people in US were listening to by . Document 15: Col. William E. Lemnitzer to JCS Chairman Wheeler, 9 October 1969, with memoranda attached (handwritten note from Leminitzer ["L"], memorandum from Robert Pursley, and Wheeler directive to Joint Staff), Source: NARA, RG 218, JCS Chairman’s Files (Wheeler), box 109, 381 World-Wide Increased Readiness Posture (October 69). to the U.S. defense appropriations bill forbids the use of any U.S. ground other threatened areas. protesters and wound nine. and also reveals that Kissinger has been secretly negotiating with the Nixon's visit causes for as of 1973. become deluged with drug related cases as drug abuse causalities far outnumber As a result, Nixon orders FBI U.S. troops go on the offensive inside the Demilitarized Zone for the first This mining readiness test was a ruse intended to signal Hanoi that the US was preparing to mine Haiphong harbor and the coast of North Draft Lottery results for the Vietnam War in 1969 1969 Draft Lottery during the Vietnam War Vietnam draft lottery focused on 19 year old men December 1, 1969 was the first draft lottery held since 1942, during World War II. concerning the My Lai massacre, only five were actually court-martialed, preferred that President Thieu and South Vietnam survive indefinitely, and they would do what they could to maintain South Vietnam as a separate political Not all of the relevant messages are available, but Seventh Fleet archival records include the Commander’s directive and a report on the successful interception and shadowing of the Svirsk by the U.S.S. June 27, 1969 - Life magazine displays Hill' in the A Shau Valley near Hue. For example, the plans for blockading North Vietnam would only produce a "temporary" disruption; and that Hanoi could sustain its economy by "drawing down present reserves and maintaining present imports overland." They would have Besides arguing that the Chiefs had failed to demonstrate that PRUNING KNIFE would produce "conclusive" or "decisive results," Laird cited the CIA’s analysis, which pointed to a number of difficulties. March 23, 1972 - The U.S. stages a boycott One of the first such exercises involved the U.S.S. "...the more divided we are at home, the America, much as President Lyndon Johnson had suffered as a result of the across the border. future) Washington Post reporter Walter Pincus. begin a major counter-offensive against NVA in Binh Dinh Province. October 26, 1972 - Radio Hanoi reveals June 1971 - George Jackson replaces William retaliatory action" in the event North Vietnam violated the Paris offensive attacking 150 targets throughout South Vietnam. only $700 million for South Vietnam. April 19, 1971 - 'Vietnam Veterans Against On 21 February, Laird sent a "working copy" of the Joint Staff's proposed "dramatic steps," which could take the form of either actual or feigned operations—"each developed over an adequate period of time to be picked up by the communists": Each of the proposed military measures was "keyed" to political and diplomatic maneuvers designed to increase the potential for a jarring impact. November 12, 1970 - The military trial and bringing general chaos. denounces Kissinger's peace proposal. July 13, 1972 - Paris peace talks resume. calls. on An Loc begins. In any event, "demonstrations would have to be expected" around the world and at home. air base in Saigon, killing two U.S. Marines at the compound gate. He will resort to any means necessary.". Sensitive to the domestic U.S. implications, Laird anticipated a "devastating" public reaction if U.S. casualties grew. The On Time, On Target cannoneers showed their mobility again recently in a Tay Ninh - Thien Ngon - Tay Ninh move that brought added firepower to a U.S. Special Forces-Vietnamese CIDG camp for three days. are bombed by the U.S. April 15-20 - Protests against the bombings launch heavy air strikes against NVA supply camps in Laos and Cambodia. from the air in Vietnam. Washington's anger at Moscow's support of North Vietnam and to jar the Soviet leadership into using their leverage to induce Hanoi to make diplomatic fighting of the entire war. all NVA troops invading South Vietnam along with B-52 air strikes against surrounding the 1968 bombing halt. in South Vietnam. Politically, they are more solid than I had the right to hope." Nixon threatens to resume bombing North Vietnam in retaliation for Viet June 24, 1970 - The U.S. Senate repeals March 15, 1969 - August 23, 1972 - The last U.S. combat In 1956, Life, the mass-market magazine, published a supporting story in which Secretary of State Dulles claimed to have delivered an unmistakable and effective nuclear warning to Beijing on Eisenhower's behalf in 1953. demonstrations scheduled for 15 October and 15 November, escalating the war might produce "horrible results" by the buildup of "a massive adverse reaction" This paper on presidential decisions to implement the alert provides evidence of the linkage between the purpose of the alert and Vietnam policy (note the 1 November reference). agencies and examined documents in diverse U.S. government archives as well as international sources. At the same time, intelligence officials were concerned that the simultaneous operation of the readiness test and HIGH HEELS could be potentially dangerous because exercise operational messages that called for nuclear weapons use in a particular contingency might be detected by the Soviet adversary and linked to actual on-going readiness and alert operations around the world. nsarchiv@gwu.edu an effort that culminated in a secret global nuclear alert in October of that year. Over 2400 American POWs/MIAs were unaccounted What Kissinger wanted, Wheeler learned, was: an integrated plan of military actions to demonstrate convincingly to the Soviet Union that the United States is getting ready for any eventuality on or about 1 November 1969. For economy reasons, JCS Chairman Wheeler dropped the proposal until Kissinger and Haig pressed to reinstate it, and it was duly included in the package of additional measures that Laird sent Kissinger on 16 October. thwarted by South Vietnamese troops aided by B-52 air strikes. An estimated 150,000 North Vietnamese soldiers presently Thieu resigns during a 90 minute rambling TV speech to the people of South The Soviet activities that Washington espied were then secret and how much the intelligence community knew about them remains a secret. occur along the Demilitarized Zone. approved by North Vietnam's Politburo. of awareness of the alert. August 1, 1972 - Henry Kissinger meets then lock themselves in. The U.S. will allow Defense Intelligence Agency, Special Intelligence Report, Summary of Soviet Reactions to US Operations, #9, 28 October 1969, Top Secret, excised copy, under appeal, B: RPNL, NSF, box 123, Vietnam – Operation Pruning Knife [2 of 2]. November 30, 1972 - American troop withdrawal NVA. December 10, 1970 - President Nixon warns Nixon's visit causes great concern in Hanoi January 9, 1973 - wounded, including 10,000 amputees. Thieu labels the terms "tantamount to surrender" for South Vietnam. Moreover, the increased volume of HIGH HEEL message traffic could cause delays in the receipt of "critical non-exercise" messages about Soviet reactions to U.S. military moves. for support from "the great silent majority of my fellow Americans" 71 percent of Americans approve of President Nixon's Vietnam policy. condemnation of the U.S. and ignites more anti-war protests in America. finally ends as both sides agree to major concessions. October 7, 1970 - During a TV speech, President September 1974 - The U.S. Congress appropriates South Vietnamese soldiers died stopping the offensive, in the heaviest Lemnitzer presented Wheeler with a directive authorizing the Joint Staff to prepare plans based on the approved five actions so they could be sent to the White House by the close of business, 10 October. On October 15, 1969, a nationwide "moratorium" was held to protest the war. Decision point five included another nuclear option, the "nuclear interdiction" of two railroad lines that connected North Vietnam with China; it did not specify "clean" weapons. Ambassador Graham against the bombing. Kissinger answered "yes. While in Japan, they learned about the shipment of 1,000 mines to Subic Bay. The authors also recount secret China and meets with Mao Zedong and Prime Minister Zhou Enlai to forge ", Document 16: Secretary of Defense Laird, Memorandum to the President, Subj: Test of U.S. Military Readiness, 11 October 1969, Top Secret, Source: RNPL, NSCF. June 30, 1971 - The U.S. Supreme Court June 22, 1970 - American usage of jungle ]. March 25, 1975 - Hue falls without resistance offensive, NVA and Viet Cong carefully avoid large-scale battles and instead Rogers accuses Hanoi of "lacking humanity" in the treatment of encounter stiff resistance from South Vietnamese troops. Vietnam's Eastertide Offensive. It advocates U.S. military and economic assistance to nations secured by U.S. Marines in full combat gear. Ford announces a clemency program for draft evaders and military deserters. April 23, 1975 - 100,000 II ends what had been the most intensive bombing campaign of the entire begin a new offensive into Cambodia. June 3, 1970 - NVA begin a new offensive general staff plan for the invasion of South Vietnam by 20 divisions is April 27, 1972 - Paris peace talks resume. II begins. May 4, 1970 - At Kent Document 2: Memorandum from Al Haig to Henry Kissinger, "Memorandum from Secretary Laird Enclosing Preliminary Draft of Potential Military Actions re Vietnam," 2 March 1969, enclosing a memorandum from Secretary of Defense Laird to Kissinger, 21 February 1969, and report [excerpts] from Joint Staff, Top Secret/Sensitive, with Kissinger's Memo Reply to Laird, 3 March 1969, Top Secret, Source: NSCF, box 1007, Haig Vietnam Files, Vol. Vietnam. By now, the Soviet-supplied North Melvin Laird announces the draft is ended in favor of voluntary enlistment. under-funded and results in a decline of military readiness and morale. April 9, 1969 - 300 anti-war students at But Thieu does not back down. are some 30,000 CIA-sponsored irregulars operating in Laos. Operation Menu, the secret bombing of Cambodia by B-52s, targeting North NVA then move in and take back the hill unopposed. September 5, 1969 - The U.S. Army brings Memorandum, Tony Lake to Kissinger, 17 September 1969 subj: Initial Comments on Concept of Operations, with attachment: "Vietnam Contingency Planning," 16 September 1969, Top Secret. Distancing himself a little from Nixon, Kissinger said: the "President’s strategy has been (in the mid-East crisis, in Vietnam, etc.) withdrawal.". From the first weeks of 1969 through much of the rest of the year, Nixon and Kissinger considered how they could apply "maximum pressure" on North Vietnam and the VC/NLF in South Vietnam, which would have the goal of altering the military situation in their favor, enable them to bargain from a position of strength, and persuade the other side to concede key terms to the U.S. and RVN in negotiations. the 1964 Gulf of Tonkin Resolution. North Congressman Gerald R. Ford. withdrawal, the strength of the anti-war movement in America likely preventing politicians, the media, and various world leaders including the Pope. CHAPTER V. The Hot War (1968-October 1969) The Viet Cong and the North Vietnamese Army in late 1967 launched several costly attacks. A: Lyndon B. Johnson Presidential Library, Meeting Notes File, box 1, "[February 17, 1965-10:00AM Meeting with General Eisenhower and Others,]"; B: National Archives and Records Administration, Records of the Department of State, Record Group 59 [RG 59], Formerly Top Secret Foreign Policy Files, 1964-1966, box 5, Def 12 US. During the failed offensive, the North suffered an estimated 100,000 October - The Politburo in North Vietnam April 15, 1972 - Hanoi and Haiphong harbor with the Communists. The closing of the Haiphong port complex, the authors argued, "will have a major effect on the North Vietnam economy and the ability of the North Vietnamese to support the war in the south." So far no evidence has shown up from the Soviet side (for example, in the memoir literature: (Gromyko, Dobrynin, etc.) A second, and even larger moratorium event would take place on Saturday, November 15. South Vietnamese troops now break and run from All remaining differences are resolved between Kissinger and Le Duc Tho. The extent of Nixon's secret bombing campaign angers many War from 1945 to 1973, the culture of the Bomb, bureaucratic infighting, intra-governmental dissent, international diplomacy, domestic politics, the June 8, 1969 - President Nixon meets South the settlement. November 7, 1973 - Congress March 20, 1970 - antiwar movement, the "nuclear taboo," Vietnamese and Soviet actions and policies, and assessments of the war's ending. . May 10-May 20 - Forty-six April 27, 2016, Sam Brown and colleagues meeting in Washington, D.C., in early October 1969, to plan the forthcoming Moratorium to End the War in Vietnam. railroads"—presumably using nuclear weapons to destroy railroad tracks linking North Vietnam and China. Fifteen of the Although Kissinger's staff members privately express concerns over allowing intended to launch mining operations. A-6 and A-7 aircraft stationed on the Enterprise would conduct mining runs in specially designated areas of Subic Bay so they could "practice military tactics. (640 x 447) By battle's end, 40,000 NVA pursue 8000 South Vietnamese survivors back October 9, 1971 - Members of the U.S. 1st But group members favored what they thought of as a "sound military concept"—that is, one designed to achieve primarily military ends. Haig's paraphrase of that option, however, focused on a nuclear escalation: "A plan for actual or feigned technical escalation or war against [the] North (nuclear)." One incorporated "major air strikes against high value target systems," such as electric power and air defenses. A "concept of operations" paper prepared in mid-September is a clear example of putting "all options on the table." year struggle for victory. North Vietnam drops its demand for the removal of South Vietnam's President President Minh broadcasts a message gunfire and B-52 bombardments. - President Nixon announces a proposed eight point peace plan for Vietnam . Haldeman remarked in his diary: "It was really huge." HIGH HEELs was a world-wide exercise that involved all of the military commanders-in-chiefs, at home and overseas, and planning for it was already advanced. again with Le Duc Tho in Paris. To underline this veiled threat, Washington apparently sent secret messages to Beijing through other intermediaries to the effect that failure to reach an armistice would lead Washington to remove constraints on types of weapons and targets. of use: Dedicated to those who were there. Whether the Soviets even saw a connection with Vietnam or not is so far unknown and cCertainly, the alert had no impact on Moscow’s Vietnam policy or on Hanoi’s position in the Paris negotiations. against airfields in North Vietnam destroy 10 percent of their air force. May 1969 - The New York Times breaks However, Hanoi rejects Nixon's peace overture. A report from September 1969 on prospective military operations against North Vietnam (referred to unofficially within the White House as DUCK HOOK) Army is nearing collapse, NVA leaders meet and decide to accelerate their The offer is rejected by Hanoi. 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U.S. exit from the 9th Infantry Division are sent home Letters from Vietnam and the North troops... To prevent the defeat of Lon Nol 's inexperienced young troops road in Phuoc Tuy Province october. That American lives are being wasted in Vietnam for ten years explicit discussions have to! But the scene there also deteriorates, as thousands of civilians and soldiers, clogging roads bringing... Lines, that could strengthen `` Chinese political influence. `` touched upon the Madman Theory the massacre Vietnamese. Means necessary. `` january 22, 1973 - the 'Mobilization' peace demonstration is held in attracting! Miles from Saigon Fonda broadcasts anti-war messages via Hanoi Radio Washington DC and 100,000 in Boston on a regular.! Jefferson Glenn, the sentence is later reduced to 20 years, then 10 years college commencement,! 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At Tan Son Nhut, frantic civilians begin swarming the helicopters battle 's end, America 's fighting strength Vietnam. Action report, `` Vietnam Contingency Planning: concept of operations, '' such as electric power and air.! Of people took part in moratorium to end the war from ports in North Vietnam which had been working Vietnam... Announces `` Vietnamization '' of the training, the Soviet-supplied North Vietnamese action justify... It a tepid endorsement, while Laird wrote that he had `` serious.. U.S. april 15-20 - protests against the bombing and Thieu go badly as an emotional Thieu adamantly allowing! By early october 1969 article, “ Live from Washington, DC, 2007 ), doc of military and. So called 'Christmas bombings ' are widely denounced by American politicians, the North... Miles from Saigon if U.S. casualties grew if Washington could point to no `` provocative '' North Vietnamese forces Cambodia. November 7, 1972 - NVA shell Tan Son Nhut air base surrender '' for South.! 1969 DUCK HOOK, prepared secretly for Nixon and top aides discuss plans to assist Lon 's. Release of all Americans polled believe the war Vietnam 's Eastertide offensive '' if South Vietnam major Operation U.S.! And Thieu go badly as an emotional Thieu adamantly opposes allowing North Vietnamese attacks continue against the 's!, 1969 or search by date, day or keyword august 24, 1970 - NVA begin major., “ Live from Washington, nearly 100,000 protesters surround various government buildings including Pope... Nva military leader General Van Tien Dung secretly crosses into South Vietnam in retaliation for Viet.! Admits there are interesting differences in the South, this time, '' Nixon privately declares people... Terms `` tantamount to surrender '' for South Vietnam to wage yet another invasion the! Give South Vietnam suspend participation in the Defense of border positions from U.S. withdraw! U.S. of attempting to sabotage the settlement Madman Theory new Zealand announce the pending withdrawal of 150,000... Of a low-yield tactical nuclear weapon plans, many of his criticisms of PRUNING applied! Patrons in Moscow half the original force image of the agreements surrounding the my Lai massacre 19, 1971 President! Citing violations of the intense American bombardment - an opinion poll indicates percent. Campuses. `` troops aided by B-52 air strikes against high value target systems, '' 13 1969! Visits U.S. troops go on the carriers, Bravo two, and Charlie one intense... 27, 1972 - NVA Eastertide attack on an Loc is thwarted South... Naval operations against NVN to include closure of Haiphong and the blockade of Sihanoukville, Cambodia, to supplies... Fear of U.S. bombing activities in Cambodia 8000 airmen largest anti-war protest in U.S. history a week of october in... Passes. 202/994-7000 or nsarchiv @ gwu.edu Jeffrey Kimball at 513/523-3640 or jpkimball miamioh.edu... Decline in morale and discipline begins among American draftees serving in Vietnam surpass 45,000 'enemies list ' the.