(Weisblatt,n.d.,p.1) It was more reliable and it saved people time. In the presence of moisture carbon dioxide is released, leavening biscuits, cookies, or other quick baking products. It became part of Rhode Island in 1862. The lactic acid in the sour milk reacted with the sodium bicarbonate to produce carbon dioxide, which, trapped in the dough, resulted in the desired lightness of the baked bread. The early cardboard Rumford Baking Powder cans in several sizes were made at the company as well as the labels printed in several different languages depending on the country where they were going. Museum Artifact: Calumet Baking Powder Tin, c. 1913 Made By: Calumet Baking Powder Co., 4100 W Fillmore St., Chicago, IL [North Lawndale] This five-pound canister of Calumet Baking Powder might seem like a cute artifact from a old-timey diner or a small town general store, but make no mistake, you’re looking at a relic from a war . Horsford understood little of the German, but commented that Liebig's experiments were "executed with skill, dexterity, grace, and rapidity."8. If you do not respond, everything you entered on this page will be lost and you will have to login again. The cardboard barrels containing Quadrofos (a textile wet cleaner), Kalye (a cleaner) and Lytona (also a cleaner) were made at the plant. “Was there a city of Norumbega” on the Charles River just upstream from Cambridge? He cleaned the streets of Munich of beggars, giving them clean quarters and putting them to work. The company Royal Baking Powder quickly capitalized on the traditional cream of tartar that had been used ad hoc by housewives, while Calumet and Clabber Girl aimed to be more modern by using the acid sodium aluminum phosphate (alum), which was cheaper and much stronger than other baking powder acids. Liebig considered himself an agricultural chemist, an emphasis appealing to Americans living in what was a predominantly rural, agrarian society. He was a chemistry professor at Harvard University, a position endowed as the Count Rumford chair. The next time you pull out that mason jar of baking powder from the cupboard, think of the history behind such an unassuming ingredient. In 1873, another company, the Royal Baking Powder Company, was set up in Manhattan. Horsford wrote reverentially of attending his first lecture given by Liebig. Today, if you need to make a last-minute birthday cake, you can grab a box of Betty Crocker cake mix, whisk it with some oil and eggs, and pop it in the oven. Everett assured Horsford that his work was "not to be arduous," with his teaching responsibilities limited to two hours a day for four five days a week. Chemistry Advent Calendar 2020 ChemistryViews 2020. Detail of the Rumford Baking Powder National Historic Chemical Landmark plaque at the Rumford Center in East Providence, R.I. Rumford Baking Powder plaque and display at the Clabber Girl Museum in Terre Haute, Ind. If you wanted your cake to be fluffy and airy, rather than dense and flat, you would need to do some serious work make it rise. Rumford Baking Powder has a shelf life of two years after the manufacturing date (or six months after opening). Baking powder works by releasing carbon dioxide gas into a batter or dough through an acid-base reaction, causing bubbles in the wet mixture to expand and thus leavening the mixture. In the early 1840s Horsford taught mathematics and natural history at the Albany Female Academy, where he fell in love with a student, Mary L'Hommedieu Gardiner. Rumford played a major role in the early success of the Institution, which was founded at a time when there were no institutional laboratories, and scientists conducted experiments in their homes. Adding sour milk to dough or batter presented a problem: the chemical reaction depended upon the degree of acidity in the sour milk which made the resulting rising unpredictable. In late 1775 Thompson sent General Howe, Gage's successor, a lengthy report on the numbers, disposition, and equipment of American forces surrounding Boston. Thompson was born in Woburn, Massachusetts, on March 26, 1753. Bread is considered a basic foodstuff; eaten down through the ages, it continues to be a staple of the modern diet. This expensive education abroad was made possible by Horsford's Albany friends, who paid for part of the trip and agreed to lend him money to cover the rest. Count Rumford was, in fact, a real person, but the Rumford Cookbook was written by Lily Hayworth Wallace (a food specialist and consultant) for Rumford Chemical Works, which developed and sold Rumford baking powder. Horsford chose the corporate name which recognized the scientific achievements of Benjamin Thompson, Count Rumford, as well as the Rumford Chair which he occupied at Harvard and which had been founded by a grant from Count Rumford. Then early man observed that when yeast was accidentally added to the paste the mixture would leaven, or rise.1, The realization that food could be made which would keep through the winter months contributed to the rise of civilization. A new cranberry recipe made with Rumford all-phosphate baking powder is offered here. He also continued his ballistic experiments, switching to studying cannons in the Royal Navy. He started selling his product under the name “Rumford Baking Powder”. Dr. Oetker. The professorship was created in 1816 and the third Rumford Professor was Eben Horsford. ACS-Hach Programs
But his major scientific focus was on heat and his most important discoveries centered on the contention that heat is a form of motion. I had no idea there was aluminum in baking powder! This appointment apparently caused resentment among his neighbors who felt there were veterans of the French and Indian War better qualified for the commission. See the application for a patent in the East Providence Historical Society. He started selling his product under the name “Rumford Baking Powder”. In 2006 Rumford Baking Powder was designated a National Historic Chemical Landmark in recognition of its significance for making baking easier, quicker, and more reliable. It was not until the 1870s that the famous Cavendish Laboratory opened in Cambridge, England. Bakers began buying both chemicals in bulk, but they had to be kept separate to prevent a premature acid-base reaction occurring. Wow. During and immediately after the Civil War, New Englander Eben Horsford’s Rumford Baking Powder pioneered the industry, making it easier to bake bread. In Thompson's day physical science would have been called natural philosophy. Grown in ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt, wheat was probably chewed at first. But this agent was difficult to make, caustic and often smelly. Keep up-to-date on: © 2020 Smithsonian Magazine. The development of baking powder made baking easier, quicker and more reliable for bakers in the mid-19th century. Why, you may wonder, was this important? Webster edited the first edition of Justus von Liebig's Organic Chemistry and Its Application to Agriculture and Physiology (1841). Rumford Chemical Works, where baking powder was made, was designated a National Historic Chemical Landmark in a special ceremony on June 12 in East Providence. It was at this point that a German-educated, Harvard chemist named Eben Horsford suggested replacing the cream of tartar with calcium acid phosphate, which he knew as monocalcium phosphate. Besides this grueling work, you had to plan ahead. Liebig was also interested in baking powder, and there has been some dispute in the literature over who did what first. Other competitors soon sprung up, and Royal was willing to resort to vicious tactics to gain control of the market. He analyzed a sample of guano for William Marcy, the Secretary of State. Eventually, the alum baking powder companies won out, and Royal and Rumford were acquired by Clabber Girl, leaving it and Calumet as the reigning American companies on the market. No doubt this close connection eased Horsford's stay in Germany since Giessen was a small town of only about 8,000 people and the University of Giessen had only about 500 students, of whom sixty were studying chemistry. Return to Top . (Retrieved November 24, 2020) Also of Interest. While Library and Archives staff came up with their favorite recipes to share with the Rensselaer Community, I recalled an important collection in the Archives regarding Rumford Chemical Works, thus making the unique possibility of uniting cookies and archives a reality. ACS is committed to helping combat the global COVID-19 pandemic with initiatives and free resources. Advertising Notice Eben Norton Horsford was born in Moscow (now Livonia), New York, on July 27, 1818. He reformed the organization of the military, which raised morale, lessened the paper-work required of officers, and improved the pay, provisions, and leisure time of enlisted men. Horsford was Rumford Professor at Harvard University and Wilson was a school teacher with a flair for industry who wished to enter business. As the business prospered, Horsford became less interested in teaching and university administration, and, in 1861, he resigned as dean of the Lawrence Scientific School, and two years later, he retired from the Rumford chair. Thompson entered the British Colonial Office, becoming an advisor to the Secretary of State for North America, Lord George Germain, at whose estate in 1778 he performed a series of experiments in the interior ballistics of small arms. Through his wife, Thompson met the colonial governor, John Wentworth, who commissioned him in the New Hampshire militia. Horsford went on to start Rumford Baking Powder, but a few years later, he faced competition from newcomer Royal Baking Powder. Published by Rumford Chemical Works, this almanac features advertisements for Professor Horsford's baking powder and acid phosphate along with other products manufactured by Rumford … As alum baking powder companies like Calumet's and Clabber Girl's captured more and more of the baking powder market, Royal Baking Powder in particular fought to discredit them. Horsford entered the Rensselaer School (now Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute) in 1837, graduating a year later with a B.S. Thanks for the tip! In the 1860s, a lot of companies added other ingredients in their baking powders. The leavening agent was popularized by and manufactured for years at Rumford Chemical Works, in Rumford Center. Horsford spent two years in Giessen, studying the nutritive value—including the protein content—of various grains among other topics in organic chemistry. Diversity in Chemistry Awards
PLUS, Rumford’s packaged it in the convenient red can, so all you had to do was spoon it out. During and immediately after the Civil War, New Englander Eben Horsford’s Rumford Baking Powder pioneered the industry, making it easier to bake bread. October is National Cookie Month as well as American Archives Month, therefore baking powder is the perfect topic for a post. He continued his interest in the chemistry of nutrition, with early studies on potatoes and the condensation of milk. Today's blog post comes to you from our guest author, CHC volunteer Michael Kenney. Explore chemistry education resources by topic that support distance learning. When Howe evacuated Boston in March, 1776, Thompson sailed to England. First and foremost, Rumford baking powder was a convenience product – one of the first. Today's blog post comes to you from our guest author, CHC volunteer Michael Kenney. With Thanksgiving close at hand the homemaker is thinking seriously of pumpkin pie and cranberry sauce. While the introduction of calcium acid phosphate satisfied the supply problem presented by cream of tartar, the baker still had to mix two products to get a satisfactory leavening agent. Collaborate with scientists in your field of chemistry and stay current in your area of specialization. Chemistry Advent Calendar 2020 ChemistryViews 2020. By the mid-1860s “Horsford’s Yeast Powder” was on the market as a pre-mixed leavening agent. Rumford Reduced Sodium Baking Powder. While Library and Archives staff came up with their favorite recipes to share with the Rensselaer Community, I recalled an important collection in the Archives regarding Rumford Chemical Works, thus making the unique possibility of uniting cookies and archives a reality. California Do Not Sell My Info In 1846, the introduction of baking soda, a salt that can react with an acid to create carbon dioxide, made things easier. This process extracted monocalcium phosphate, creating an acid that would react with baking soda to create CO2. Thompson was allowed to choose his own title; he selected Count Rumford, after the name by which Concord, New Hampshire, had been known before 1765. The action of the two chemicals—initially marketed in twin envelopes—began as soon as they were added to the wet dough or batter. History of Baking Powder: 1843 – The first modern version of baking powder was discovered and manufactured by Alfred Bird (1811-1878), British chemist and founder of Bird and Sons Ltd. His improved version of baking powder was created so he could make yeast-free bread for his wife, Elizabeth, who had allergies to eggs and yeast. The Roman welfare state was based on the distribution of grain to Roman citizens. History of Baking Powder Baking powder were discovered in 1843 by a British chemist named Alfred Bird and founder of Birds and Sons Ltd In 1869 Rumford began the manufacture of what can truly be considered baking powder in honor of Count Rumford. He was released but never received a public hearing. Initially, Horsford extracted the compound, monocalcium phosphate, from boiling the bones of animals. For most of human history, the main rising agent has been yeast. The quality of this Baking Powder is what gives the baked goods consistency in quality and uniformity. Water activates them, so he mixed them with cornstarch to soak up any excess moisture and prevent them from reacting prematurely. Through much of history the color of bread revealed social status: the darker the bread, the lower a person's status. At its height of activity around the turn of the century, Rumford Chemical included 300 acres of working farms and communities to sustain the factory workers, and the Village of Rumford was called the "kitchen capital of the world." Network with colleagues and access the latest research in your field. The mixture of acid with sodium bicarbonate was stabilized by addition of starch and marketed in one package. Use of Baking Powder Makes Less Sugar Necessary In Preparation of Sauce. In the early years of the factory the source for calcium was bones, which were treated with sulfuric acid. . "It's really the first chemical that opens the floodgates for chemicals in food," Civitello says. Samuel Rezneck, "Horsford's 'Marching Ration" for the Civil War Army," Military Affairs 33 (1969): 249-255. At the same time, he was working on other ideas that might yield products for marketing. (It is frustrating that the smallest size of, say, Clabber Girl is still way more than I will ever use before it expires.) Three reasons have been offered for his failure to obtain a degree: he did not want to incur more debts; his limited academic training prior to his sojourn in Germany; and he needed a job in order to marry. In 1859, US chemist Eben Horsford launched Prof Horsfords Self Raising Bread Preparation, using powdered monocalcium phosphate (MCP), which he had patented in 1856. Bakers learned that instead of waiting for leaven to accidentally enter their dough the process could be somewhat regularized if they saved a piece of dough from one batch to put in the next. He returned to England in 1783, but soon left for travel on the continent. Within a few months of arriving in Concord, Thompson married the Reverend's daughter, Sarah Walker Rolfe, whose deceased first husband left her a large estate. This process was unpredictable, since it was hard to control how acidic the sour milk actually was, meaning it was difficult to know how much baking soda to use or how long to bake for. Soon, a German pharmacist, August Oetker popularized baking powder by selling it to housewives. This is the origin of sourdough, and it is still used today. For example, he studied the Boston water supply with emphasis on the effect of water on lead and iron pipes. Baking powder was the main output of the Rumford Chemical Works. And he was certain… Let ACS help you navigate your career journey with tools, personal coaching and networking. Anon., Eighty Years of Baking Powder History: 1859-1939, Rumford, RI, Rumford Chemical Works, 1939; Anon, "History of the Rumford Chemical Works," typed manuscript, dated April 15, 1947, in the East Providence Historical Society; Anon., "The Story of Baking Powder — The Story of Rumford, reprint from Oil-Power in East Providence Historical Society. Since it was the presence of water which began the reaction process, Horsford solved the problem by drying the ingredients sufficiently. Launch and grow your career with career services and resources. Rumford Baking Powder was manufactured at the Rumford Center from 1869 to 1968. This group had an international flavor, due entirely to the presence of Liebig on the faculty. The students rose when the professor entered the hall and "all was breathless." This cheap chemical factors into countless baked goods we buy and make every day, from donuts to hamburger buns. Call for abstracts closes Jan. 19, 2021. Clabber Girl’s Rumford brand also offers a reduced-sodium baking powder that’s guaranteed … This was because white flours were more expensive and harder to adulterate with other products. He could indulge his hobbies since he prospered from the chemical works he established with Wilson. American Association of Chemistry Teachers, Reactions: Chemistry Science Videos & Infographics, Count Rumford (Benjamin Thompson), 1753-1814, Rumford, East Providence, RI, Walking Tour. For your security, this online session is about to end due to inactivity. But there's more to baking powder than fluffy biscuits, and some simple acid-base chemistry is the key. Rumford spent the last dozen years of his life in Paris. Published by Rumford Chemical Works, this almanac features advertisements for Professor Horsford's baking powder and acid phosphate along with other products manufactured by Rumford … The American Chemical Society dedicated the development of baking powder by Eben Horsford a National Historic Chemical Landmark in a ceremony at the Rumford Chemical Works in East Providence, Rhode Island, on June 12, 2006, and at Clabber Girl headquarters in Terre Haute, Indiana, on April 27, 2007. Includes recipes for baking powder breads, breakfast treats, cakes, pastries, candy & a few main dishes. Initially, Horsford extracted the compound, monocalcium phosphate, from boiling the bones of animals. "7 But this changed early in Horsford's stay in Giessen, and soon the student was on intimate relations with the teacher and his family. You shall have a good laboratory, well furnished and a cordial welcome from all your associates. By the mid-1860s “Horsford’s Yeast Powder” was on the market as a pre-mixed leavening agent. The cardboard barrels containing Quadrofos (a textile wet cleaner), Kalye (a cleaner) and Lytona (also a cleaner) were made at the plant. This was packaged in bottles, but Horsford was interested in using metal cans for packing; this meant the mixture had to be more moisture resistant. Entrance to the Rumford Chemical Works general offices in building 31 of the Rumford campus (undated). Since it was cheap and widely available, bakers often used sour milk. The fight culminated in 1899, when Royal managed to bribe the Missouri legislature to pass a law banning the sale of all alum baking powders in the state, according to Baking Powder Wars. This compound acted as the acid. 1911 softcover booklet of recipes Very good condition, minor blemishes of age, no writing or markings. In this early form of baking powder, the MCP and soda were wrapped individually, later being blended with cornstarch to be sold as Rumford Baking Powder. The development of baking powder made baking easier, quicker and more reliable for bakers in the mid-19th century. I was interested by it since I get regular requests for low-sodium recipes, and the good folks at Clabber Girl were happy to send along a sample for me to try. He established a chemical merchandising firm in Providence, Rhode Island, which he named George F. Wilson & Co. and which specialized in the supply of chemicals to the local textile industry. He mixed the two in a container with a little cornstarch and baking powder was born. “It's the one ingredient everyone has on their shelf." Rumford wasn't alone for long in the baking powder industry. So what changed? History. Ben Panko is a staff writer for Smithsonian.com, Continue As these finicky little fungi grow and divide, they breathe in oxygen and release carbon dioxide like we do. That knowledge set the stage for subsequent social, economic, and political developments: the rise of cities, the stratification of societies, and the evolution from bands of hunters to tribes to nations.2. Rumford Baking Powder was made in the town at the Rumford Chemical Works and was named after Sir Benjamin Thompson, Count Rumford. The formulation began in 1891 and production technique patented in 1903. "("Stradley(a)", n.d, para.5). Rumford Low-Sodium Baking Powder I recently received a press release about this new product from Rumford (really Clabber Girl, which now owns the Rumford brand). American Chemical Society National Historic Chemical Landmarks. Rumford Baking Powder is available for purchase at most major supermarkets and many health food stores nationwide. ACS Spring 2021
The first packaged products from the Rumford Chemical Works were correctly proportioned supplies of calcium acid phosphate and sodium bicarbonate marketed as Horsford's Bread Preparation. For more than three millennia, the method of baking bread did not change substantially; that is, until the 1830s when bakers began adding sodium bicarbonate (bicarbonate of soda) and sour milk to their dough. History Lives Here. The next time you pull out that mason jar of baking powder from the cupboard, think of the history behind such an unassuming ingredient. Unfortunately, the site they picked proved unacceptable as neighbors complained about the constant escape of sulfur dioxide during the manufacturing process. By the mid-1860's "Horsford's Yeast Powder" was on the market as an already mixed leavening agent, distinct from separate packages of calcium acid phosphate and sodium bicarbonate. While you are at it, make a Baking Certificate from Clabber Girl® (parent company to Rumford®) for any little helper in the kitchen there to do any on-the-spot taste testing. It may also help in eradicating discolouration due to the alkaline energy it possesses. But preferences change; today, darker breads are more expensive and prized for their taste and nutritional value. . During these years he continued to live in Cambridge, Massachuestts, until his death on January 1, 1893. Wilson also devised methods for using bone and spent bone black in the manufacture of agricultural fertilizers. East Providence Historical Society President Nancy Moore, ACS President E. Ann Nalley, Peregrine Group LLC Principal Colin Kane, and Clabber Girl Corp. representative Tom Payne. Today, baking powder "is like air, water,” Civitello says. Dedicated June 12, 2006, at the Rumford Chemical Works in East Providence, Rhode Island, and April 27, 2007, at Clabber Girl headquarters in Terre Haute, Indiana. (Many early recipes recommend obtaining the help of a manservant.). Rumford Baking Powder, commemorative booklet produced by the National Historic Chemical Landmarks program of the American Chemical Society (ACS), USA, 2006. Use of Baking Powder Makes Less Sugar Necessary In Preparation of Sauce. These two factors—that the components of baking powder had to be kept separate and that the availability of cream of tartar was erratic—fueled the search for a more efficient and economical baking powder. Horsford eagerly seized upon Wilson's offer as he had just received his first patent for a chemical process, the use of calcium sulfite to neutralize chlorine in bleached cotton and linen fabrics. 6 (December 1950): 380-86. What also made Rumford special was its use of calcium phosphate in … In early America, making a cake was an ordeal. Smithsonian Institution. Rumford Baking Powder was manufactured at the Rumford Center from 1869 to 1968. "The fact that you can find it in every major supermarket tells you something about how it's been embraced," Carbone says. Give a Gift. In 1856, this need for a viable alternative drove a young chemist Eben Norton Horsford to create and patent the first modern baking powder. In addition to marketing Horsford's pulverulent phosphoric acid, the firm was producing hydrochloric and nitric acids and tin chloride. For the next few years he worked for the New York State Geological Survey and taught a yearly lecture course on chemistry at Newark College in Delaware. Ingredients are monocalcium phosphate, sodium bicarbonate, and cornstarch. Her father refused to approve the marriage until Horsford's prospects improved, so the two did not marry until August 1847. Return to Top . But how many know their connection to an everyday kitchen product, baking powder? Read more. In 1856, the first baking powder was patented by a chemist named Eben Norton Horsford. 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